International Relations 1900-1939

Why did war break out in 1914?

Key aims

  • To identify the main reasons why Germany’s rise led to increased tension, and its impact on the emergence of two different Alliance systems (eg role of Kaiser Wilhelm II, British fears, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente).
  • To understand the main reasons why Great Powers wanted colonies (raw materials, export markets, military bases), and how this led to increased tensions (eg the 1905 and 1911 Moroccan Crises).
  • To identify the main reasons why a naval arms race developed between Britain and Germany, (eg. the Dreadnoughts) and why armed forces in general were built up.
  • To understand the significance of economic growth/strength in relation to the strength of the Great Powers.
  • To identify the main reasons for, and the impact of, the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans (eg the emergence of Bulgaria and Serbia).
  • To understand the main reasons why the Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires were interested in the Balkans, and the significance of Slav nationalism and Serbia.
  • To identify the main points and events of the 1908 Bosnian Crisis (eg the ‘Young Turk’ Movement, changes in Turkey, the Austro-Hungarian annexation, the Black Hand Society)
  • To identify the main events of the Balkan Wars, 1912-13, their main results, and the reasons why this increased tensions in the region.
  • To identify the main reasons for, and the main events of, the Assassination at Sarajevo (eg the role of the Black Hand Society, the main conspirators such as Cabrinovic and Princip).
  • To identify the main reactions of Austria-Hungary and Germany to the Assassination (including Germany’s ‘blank cheque’, and the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia).
  • To identify the main sequence of events and steps from the Assassination to the declaration of war (inc. mobilisations, and the German Schlieffen Plan).
  • To identify the main points at which the two main Alliance systems contributed to the outbreak of war (including the connections between Germany and Austria-Hungary, Russia and France, Britain and France).

Origins of the Great War game from schoolhistory.

The Tangier Crisis

Algeciras Conference

The Morocco Crisis of 1911.

The Second Moroccan Crisis of 1911

Who declared war on who? From the First World War.com

The Peace Settlement – the treaties

  • Outline of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, January 1918.
  • Why did Germany want an armistice by September 1918?
  • The composition of the ‘Big Three’, and the three relevant personalities; and the different experiences of each of these three countries during WW1.
  • The main terms of the treaty of Versailles, as regards the restrictions placed on Germany’s military forces (army, navy, airforce) and its territories.
  • The break-up/state of Europe in 1918, and the other peace treaties and their terms.
  • The impact of the peace treaties on and Europe and the ‘successor states’ by 1926 – especially the Russian Tsarist empire (Finland and the Baltic states); the Austro-Hungarian empire (Poland); and the reactions of the ‘Big Three’ and Germany to the Treaty of Versailles.
  • The main developments in International Relations 1919-28 – including the Ruhr, the Locarno Pact and the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
  • Overview of the main reasons for the establishment of the League of Nations, and the meaning of collective security.
  • The basic organisation of the league of Nations, and its main bodies.
  • The actions and successes of the League of Nations in the 1920s, including the work of its commissions.
  • The main weaknesses of the League of Nations and how these emerged during the 1920s.

The Armistice

Germany and the Armistice from the History Learning website.

A good article from First World War.com

From ‘Answer Bag’. How accurate do you think they are?

The Treaties

Summaries of all the treaties from the BBC.

All the treaties from Silvapages, from an American teacher’s website.

Self-determination from John D Clare.

Versailles

The video below maybe a little old-fashioned but it is very useful nevertheless.

Useful material from BBC Bitesize on the ‘Big 3’ and ‘Versailles’.

More useful material from Fun Front.

From the History Learning website.

From the Spartacus Educational website.

Sevres

From the History Learning website.

Lausanne

The treaty from an educational website.

From Britannica Encyclopedia.

Neuilly

From the History Learning website.

Trianon

From the History Learning website.

St. Germain

From the History Learning website.

The Successor States

The Ruhr, the Locarno Pact and the Kellogg-Briand Pact.

The Ruhr Crisis from a teaching blog.

The Ruhr Crisis from the History Learning website.

Locarno Treaties from wikipedia.

The Locarno Pact from a wiki page.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact from History Central.

League of Nations

League of Nations powerpoint

Fairly comprehensive material on the League from GCSE history.org

Failure of the League of Nations

A very useful League of Nations timeline from World at War.

Disarmament

The Washington Naval Conference 1922, from a US history website.

The Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932, from an American school website.

The Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932, from Global Securty.org.

The website above also has links to other disarmament conferences.

Why did war break out? International relations 1929–39

1. Outline of the main features and implications of the Wall Street Crash in the USA.

Why and how did this impact on the rest of the world?

2. The main features of, and reasons for, Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1931.

The main features of, and reasons for,  Italy’s invasion of Abyssinia in 1935.

3. Overview of German responses to the Treaty of Versailles, and Hitler’s main foreign policy aims.

Hitler’s main actions and breaches of the Treaty of Versailles from 1933-36, and the responses of Britain and France

4. Overview of the main features of Appeasement.

The main steps taken by Hitler during 1933-38 to achieve Anschluss with Austria.

5. Overview of the main problems relating to Czechoslovakia, and especially the Sudetenland, following the peace treaties after WW1.

The actions taken by Hitler over the Sudetenland in 1938, and the reactions of Britain and France.

6. Hitler’s actions during 1938-39 – the ‘road to war’.

  • Overview of the reactions of Britain and France, and the debate surrounding Appeasement during this period.

There are many causes to this huge war. Some have been studied previously, notably the First World War, Treaty of Versailles, the political and economic impact of the Depression and the failure of the League of Nations. The remaining causes largely took place in the 1930’s. Hitler’s foreign policy is generally seen as the root cause of the war and indeed many students opine that he started the Second World War. However, things are rarely as simple as this. Your task is to analyse the twenty years before the conflict and establish a qualified argument. When did the war become inevitable? What parallels can you draw with the First World War? What could have been done to stop such a war?

1. Outline of the main features and implications of the Wall Street Crash in the USA. Why and how did this impact on the rest of the world?

Impact of the Wall Street Crash and the Depression from GCSE History.org

The Wall Street Crash from the History Learning site.

2.The main features of, and reasons for, Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Also, the main features of, and reasons for,  Italy’s invasion of Abyssinia in 1935.

Manchuria

Manchuria from GCSE history.org

Abyssinia

Abyssinia from GCSE History.org

The League’s response to both crises from GCSE history.org

3. Overview of German responses to the Treaty of Versailles, and Hitler’s main foreign policy aims. Hitler’s main actions and breaches of the Treaty of Versailles from 1933-36, and the responses of Britain and France.

Hitler’s foreign policy aims from GCSE history.org

The reoccupation of the Rhineland from GCSE history.org

4. Overview of the main features of Appeasement. Also, the main steps taken by Hitler during 1933-38 to achieve Anschluss with Austria. Also, an overview of the reactions of Britain and France, and the debate surrounding Appeasement during this period.

From the Spartacus Educational website.

From BBC bitesize.

An Anschluss website.

The Anschluss from GCSE history.org

Appeasement

John D. Clare’s Road to World War Two.

1930’s international relations quiz game from Active History.

Chamberlain and appeasement from GCSE history.org

Hitler and the origins of the Second World War quiz.

Opposition to appeasement from GCSE history.org

5. Overview of the main problems relating to Czechoslovakia, and especially the Sudetenland, following the peace treaties after WW1.

The actions taken by Hitler over the Sudetenland in 1938, and the reactions of Britain and France.

The Sudetan problem from GCSE history.org

The Munich Conference from GCSE history.org

6. Hitler’s actions during 1938-39 – the ‘road to war’.

Poland from GCSE history.org

The Pact of Steel from GCSE history.org

The Nazi-Soviet Pact from GCSE history.org

The outbreak of war from GCSE history.org

Czechoslovakia – March 1939, from John D. Clare.

The invasion of Czechoslovakia from the BBC.

Examination Papers

5HA01 Sample Assessment

5HA01 Additional Sample Assessment

June 2010 question paper

June 2010 mark scheme

January 2011 question paper

January 2011 mark scheme

June 2011 question paper

June 2011 mark scheme

January 2012 question paper

January 2012 mark scheme

GCSE History Unit Grade Boundaries June 2011

Exam Advice

Podcasts

Causes of increased tension between the Great Powers

Conflicts in the Balkans before the Great War

The shot that led to war

1914 – The outbreak of war

Outbreak of War – 4 August 1914

Historiography – Responsibility for the Great War

The Treaty of Versailles

Reactions to Versailles

The Paris Peacemakers

The establishment of the League of Nations

Failure of the League of Nations

Britain in the 20th Century Appeasement (detailed)

German Foreign Policy 1933-1939

Nazi Germany 1934-1939

—————————

Historiography – Responsibility for the Great War

League of Nations – The 1920s

League of Nations – The 1930s

The Road to War

Appeasement

Games

Causes of the First World War.

Outbreak of the First World War.

Another outbreak of the First World War game..

The Treaty of Versailles.

The impact of the Treaty of Versailles.

The peace treaties.

1930’s international relations.

Origins of the Second World War.

The Second World War from 1938 to 1940.

International relations from 1919 to 1939.

Advertisements
Comments
  1. Ayesha Mansoor says:

    How could Tsar Nicholas be held account for the start of WW1?
    Are there any useful links that you could give me because I’ve tried and I can’t find anything!
    Please and thank you! 🙂

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s